The word Estrogen is most associated with women; however, let us remind ourselves that both men and women produce the same hormones – just in different quantities.

What is estrogen? Who needs estrogen? Why do we need estrogen?

Let’s find out what estrogen is. Estrogen is a sex hormone which comes from cholesterol. There are 3 types of estrogen: Estriol or E1, Estradiol or E2 and Estrone or E3. All are interconnected but the only active one is Estradiol/E2. Let us not use the word estrogen as a synonym to Estradiol/E2. Unfortunately, literature and research studies do not always make this distinction which often makes the results of certain studies confusing to the reader. In females, Estradiol/E2 is produced predominantly in the ovaries, and in males Estradiol/E2 comes from the transformation of testosterone into its two active components: Estradiol/E2 and dihydrotestosterone.

Estradiol/E2 attaches itself through receptors in the outer part of the cells (cell membranes) or inner part of the cells (cell nucleus) and mitochondria (our power houses).  These receptors are in most organs in the body, such as the salivary glands, brain, heart, inner lining of the blood vessels, skin, kidneys, bones, liver, intestines, prostate, ovaries, the inside lining of the uterus/endometrium, breast, hypothalamus, and ducts in the male genitalia.  Clearly estradiol receptors are vital to our health, as explained further in The Estrogen Receptors: An Overview from Different Perspectives – PubMed (

What does this translate to? In the brain and nervous system Estradiol/E2 can help protect our neurons (brain cells), thereby decreasing damage to the cells and decreasing the possibility of developing Alzheimer’s disease. See these articles for more detail: Estradiol, insulin-like growth factor-I and brain aging – PubMed ( and Cross-talk between IGF-I and estradiol in the brain: focus on neuroprotection – PubMed (

How does Estradiol/E2 affect the blood vessels and the heart? The inside of a blood vessel is called the endothelium. Blood vessels carry oxygen and nutrients to various parts of the body and take away waste and carbon dioxide. When the lining of the blood vessels gets damaged it develops calcifications on the blood vessel wall. Estradiol/E2 has been shown to decrease the calcium deposits in the blood vessel walls and can decrease the risk of heart attacks and strokes. See these articles for more detail: Timing of the vascular actions of estrogens in experimental and human studies: why protective early, and not when delayed? – PubMed ( and Vascular Effects of Early versus Late Postmenopausal Treatment with Estradiol – PubMed (

What does Estradiol/E2 have to do with bone health? Have you ever heard of the saying “Estradiol does the bones good”? Well, I just made the phrase up, but it is true! There are many hormones involved in bone health, Estradiol being one of them. To mention a few of the other hormones which we will also talk about at another time are vitamin D3, liothyronine, testosterone, DHEA, and DHT. For more see Vascular Effects of Early versus Late Postmenopausal Treatment with Estradiol – PubMed (

In women, Estradiol/E2 is also responsible for the maturation of the follicles in the ovaries where the eggs or oocytes are developed and released in between menstrual cycles. So, it is very important in a woman’s fertility. In the breast it stimulates the growth of breast tissue.

This is a small glimpse of all the wonderful things that Estradiol/E2 is involved in.

Many things can affect our production, quality, and action of hormones. The air we breathe, the food we eat, what we wear, our surroundings. There is no safe place – our hormones are being affected from “in utero,” in other words before we were born.

As Estradiol/E2 levels decline diseases sneak up and increase. Are low levels of sex hormones, Estradiol/E2 included, partially responsible of declining human fertility? Why do we have so much obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, heart attacks, strokes, and cancer? Are we destined to be sick, develop diseases, battle diseases and cancer? Can we change the course of diseases and minimize the effect our environment has on our lives? The answer starts from within you. Are you willing to change, to reach and maintain a healthier, more joyful, more productive life?

Make an appointment. Talk to me today.  Let’s partner up on your journey to better health!

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